Codeine phosphate hemihydrate
CAS No. : 41444-62-6
Molecular Formula: C18H24NO7P
Formula Weight: 397.36
Mol weight : 406.4
Chemical Name : CODEINE PHOSPHATE
Synonyms: N-METHYLNORCODEINE HEMIHYDRATE;MORPHINE-3-METHYL
ETHER HEMIHYDRATE;CODEINE PHOSPHATE;CODEINE PHOSPHATE
HEMIHYDRATE;CODEINIUM PHOSPHATE HEMIHYDRATE;METHYLMORPHINE PHOSPHATE
phosphate (salt), hydrate (2:2:1);CODEINEPHOSPHATE,USP;Codein
phosphate hemihydrate;Codeine·phosphoric acid·0.5hydrate
Appearance: white or almost white, crystalline powder or
small, colourless crystals.
Solubility : freely soluble in water, slightly soluble in
ethanol (96 per cent).
Codeine is an alkaloid found in opium and other poppy saps like Papaver
bracteatum, the Iranian poppy, in concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 3.0
percent. While codeine can be extracted from opium, most codeine is
synthesized from morphine through the process of O-methylation. It was
first isolated in 1832 in France by Jean-Pierre Robiquet.
The effects of the Nixon War On Drugs by 1972 or so had caused
across-the-board shortages of illicit and licit opiates because of a
scarcity of natural opium, poppy straw and other sources of opium
alkaloids, and the geopolitical situation was getting less helpful for
the United States. After a large percentage of the opium and morphine in
the US National Stockpile of Strategic & Critical Materials had to be
tapped in order to ease severe shortages of medicinal opiates—the
codeine-based antitussives in particular—in late 1973, researchers were
tasked with and quickly succeeded in finding a way to synthesize codeine
and its derivatives and precursors from scratch from petroleum or coal
tar using a process developed at the United States' National Institutes
The most frequent adverse reactions include lightheadedness, dizziness,
sedation, nausea, and vomiting. These effects seem to be more prominent
in ambulatory than in non ambulatory patients, and some of these adverse
reactions may be alleviated if the patient lies down.
Other adverse reactions include euphoria, dysphoria, constipation, and
Drug Abuse and Dependence
Controlled Substance: Codeine phosphate is a Schedule II narcotic.
Although much less potent in this regard than morphine, codeine can
produce drug dependence a.d. therefore, has the potential for being
abused. Patients given 60 mg codeine every 6 hours for 2 months usually
show some tolerance and mild withdrawal symptoms. Development of the
dependent state is recognized by an increased tolerance to the analgesic
effect and the appearance of purposive phenomena (complaints, pleas,
demands, or manipulative actions) shortly before the time of the next
scheduled dose. A patient in withdrawal should be treated in a hospital
environment. Usually, it is necessary only to provide supportive care
with administration of a tranquilizer to suppress anxiety. Severe
symptoms of withdrawal may require administration of a replacement
Carbamazepine, hydantoins, sulfinpyrazone
May result in increased risk of hepatotoxicity.
Effects of codeine may be enhanced, increasing toxicity.
CNS depressants (eg, barbiturates, ethyl alcohol, other narcotics)
May result in additive CNS depressant effects and toxicity.
Tricyclic antidepressants, phenothiazines
May cause additive CNS depressant effects and toxicity.
Laboratory Test Interactions
With Chemstrip bG , Dextrostix , and Visidex II home blood glucose
systems, drug may cause false decrease in mean glucose values.
False-positive results may occur in urinary 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid
USES: This medication is used to treat mild to moderately severe
pain. Codeine phosphate is a narcotic pain reliever. It acts on certain
centers in the brain to give you pain relief.
Relation to other opiates
Codeine is the starting material and prototype of a large class of
mainly mild to moderately strong opioids such as hydrocodone,
dihydrocodeine and its derivatives such as nicocodeine. Other series of
codeine derivatives include isocodeine and its derivatives, which were
developed in Germany starting around 1920. Related to codeine in other
ways are Codeine-N-Oxide (Genocodeine), related to the nitrogen morphine
derivatives as is codeine methobromide, and heterocodeine which is a
drug six times stronger than morphine and 72 times stronger than codeine
due to a small re-arrangement of the molecule, viz. moving the methyl
group from the 3 to the 6 position on the morphine carbon skeleton.
Drugs bearing resemblance to codeine in effects due to close structural
relationship are variations on the methyl groups at the 3 position
including ethylmorphine a.k.a. codethyline (Dionine) and benzylmorphine
(Peronine). While having no narcotic effects of its own, the important
opioid precursor thebaine differs from codeine only slightly in
structure. Pseudocodeine and some other similar alkaloids not currently
used in medicine are found in trace amounts in opium as well.
Codeine can be used as a recreational drug. However, it has much less
abuse potential than some other opiates or opioids, such as oxycodone
In some countries, cough syrups and tablets containing codeine are
available without prescription; some potential recreational users are
reported to buy codeine from multiple pharmacies so as not to arouse
suspicion. A heroin addict may use codeine to ward off the effects of a
Codeine is also available in conjunction with the anti-nausea medication
promethazine in the form of a syrup. Brand named as Phenergan with
Codeine or generically as promethazine with codeine this medication is
quickly becoming one of the most highly abused codeine preparations.
Codeine is also demethylated by reaction with pyridine to illicitly
synthesize morphine. Pyridine is toxic and possibly carcinogenic, so
morphine illicitly produced in this manner (and potentially contaminated
with pyridine) may be particularly harmful. Codeine can also be turned
into α-chlorodide which is used in the clandestine synthesis of
desomorphine (Permonid). Codeine can also be turned directly into
stronger derivatives of the dihydrocodeine and hydrocodone families and
a few others with various chemicals and equipment.
These API/ chemicals are designated as
those that are used in the manufacture of the controlled substances and
are important to the manufacture of the substances. For any (Control
Substance) products Import and Export *** subjected to your country
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Note /Government Notification:
These chemicals are designated as those that are used in the manufacture
of the controlled substances and are important to the manufacture of the
substances. For any (Control Substance) products Import and Export ***
subjected to your country government laws /control substance ACT.
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