CAS NO. : 76-57-3 (Base) 1422-07-7
FORMULA : C18H21NO3
MOL WT. : 317.38
DERIVATION TOXICITY : Oral rat LD50: 427 mg/kg
Methyl morphine monohydrate;
6-alpha-ol; 3-o-methylmorphine Monohydrate;
6alpha)-morphinan 6-ol; Actacode; Calcidrine; Codicept; Codalgin
Forte Codate; (-)-Codeine; Codeinum; Coducept; Metilmorfina;
Morphine-3-methyl ether; Morphine monomethyl ether; N-Methyl
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
PHYSICAL STATE : white crystalline powder
MELTING POINT : 154 - 156 C
BOILING POINT : 250 C
SPECIFIC GRAVITY : 1.32
SOLUBILITY IN WATER : pH
VAPOR DENSITY : AUTOIGNITION
NFPA RATINGS Health: 3 Flammability: 1
FLASH POINT : 75 C
STABILITY : Stable under ordinary conditions
Odor : None found
Taste : None found
Codeine is an alkaloid found naturally in opium in concentrations
ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 percent. It is commercially synthesized from
morphine. It is the most widely used drug among the morphine class
of compounds used in a variety of pharmaceuticals including
analgesics, antiperistaltics, antitussive agents, hypnotics, and
sedatives. Codeine is an opioid analgesic related to morphine but
with less potential analgesic property and mild sedative effect.
Dihydrocodeine, called also drocode, is a similar opioid analgesic
with pharmaceutical action with codeine. It is known it has
approximately twice potentiality.
white crystalline needles
99.0% min (Dry Basis)
-106° ~ -110° (C=1 in water)
HAZARD CLASS UN NO.
Hazard Symbols: , Risk Phrases: 20/21/22, Safety Phrases: 26-36
Codeine is an alkaloid found in opium
and other poppy saps like Papaver bracteatum, the Iranian poppy, in
concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 3.0 percent. While codeine can be
extracted from opium, most codeine is synthesized from morphine through
the process of O-methylation. It was first isolated in 1832 in France by
The effects of the Nixon War On Drugs by 1972 or so had caused
across-the-board shortages of illicit and licit opiates because of a
scarcity of natural opium, poppy straw and other sources of opium
alkaloids, and the geopolitical situation was getting less helpful for
the United States. After a large percentage of the opium and morphine in
the US National Stockpile of Strategic & Critical Materials had to be
tapped in order to ease severe shortages of medicinal opiates—the
codeine-based antitussives in particular—in late 1973, researchers were
tasked with and quickly succeeded in finding a way to synthesize codeine
and its derivatives and precursors from scratch from petroleum or coal
tar using a process developed at the United States' National Institutes
Numerous codeine salts have been prepared since the drug was discovered.
The most commonly used are the hydrochloride (freebase conversion ratio
0.805), phosphate (0.736), sulphate (0.859) and citrate (0.842). Others
include a salicylate NSAID, codeine salicylate (0.686), and at least
four codeine-based barbiturates, the cyclohexenylethylbarbiturate
(0.559), cyclopentenylallylbarbiturate (0.561), diallylbarbiturate
(0.561), and diethylbarbiturate (0.619).
Codeine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive, and
Codeine is useful for numbing back pain, and is frequently prescribed
for this purpose.
Codeine is by far the most widely used opiate in the world and probably
the most commonly used drug overall according to numerous reports over
the years by organizations such as the World Health Organization and its
League of Nations predecessor agency and others. It is one of the most
effective orally-administered opioid analgesics and has a wide safety
A human poison by an unspecified route. An experimental poison by
ingestion, intraperitoneal, intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous
routes. Human reproductive effects. An experimental teratogen. Other
experimental reproductive effects. An addictive drug. Flammable when
exposed to heat or flame. To fight fire, use alcohol foam. When heated
to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx.
DANGER! MAY BE FATAL IF SWALLOWED. HARMFUL IF INHALED OR ABSORBED
THROUGH SKIN. ALLERGEN. EXPOSURE MAY PRODUCE ALLERGIC RESPONSE.
Narcotic. Can irritate the respiratory passages and cause sneezing or
coughing but will also have an anesthetic effect. Inhalation of
appreciable quantities may produce lung edema, dizziness, and
respiratory difficulties, see also Ingestion, below.
Toxic. Narcotic. Human lethal dose about 800 mg. In addition to its
analgesic action, codeine can cause slow respiration, cyanosis, weak
pulse, gastrointestinal spasm, pinpoint pupils and twitching or
convulsions. Death from respiratory failure can occur.
Not expected to cause health effects, although the possibility of
absorption exists under conditions of skin breakage or inflammation.
Mild irritant but will also have a strong narcotic effect (pupil
constriction) and the eye may serve as an absorption route to the body
Can lead to habituation and addiction. Pinpoint pupils and rapid changes
of mood may be observed.
Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions:
Some individuals may become sensitized from exposure and develop skin
rashes, coughs, stuffy nose, asthma, and other allergic complaints.
Sensitivity may develop soon after immediate contact or after years of
First Aid Measures
Remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If
breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Call a physician.
Induce vomiting immediately as directed by medical personnel. Never give
anything by mouth to an unconscious person.
Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes
while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Call a physician,
immediately. Wash clothing before reuse.
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes,
lifting lower and upper eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention
Fire Fighting Measures
As with most organic solids, fire is possible at elevated temperatures
or by contact with an ignition source.
Not considered to be an explosion hazard.
Fire Extinguishing Media:
Water spray, dry chemical, alcohol foam, or carbon dioxide.
In the event of a fire, wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved
self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the
pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
These API/ chemicals are designated as
those that are used in the manufacture of the controlled substances and
are important to the manufacture of the substances. For any (Control
Substance) products Import and Export *** subjected to your country
government laws /control substance ACT.
Note /Government Notification:
These chemicals are designated as those that are used in the manufacture
of the controlled substances and are important to the manufacture of the
substances. For any (Control Substance) products Import and Export ***
subjected to your country government laws /control substance ACT.
Information: The information on this web page is provided to help you
to work safely, but it is intended to be an overview of hazards, not a
replacement for a full Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). MSDS forms can
be downloaded from the web sites of many chemical suppliers. ,also that
the information on the PTCL Safety web site, where this page was hosted,
has been copied onto many other sites, often without permission. If you
have any doubts about the veracity of the information that you are
viewing, or have any queries, please check the URL that your web browser
displays for this page. If the URL begins "www.tajapi.com/www/Denatonium
Benzoate.htm/" the page is maintained by the Safety Officer in Physical
Chemistry at Oxford University. If not, this page is a copy made by some
other person and we have no responsibility for it.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress
of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse
Prevention and Control Act of 1970. The CSA is the federal U.S. drug
policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use and
distribution of certain substances is regulated. The Act also served as
the national implementing legislation for the Single Convention on