Morphine HCl Analgesic BP / EP
|Molecular Formula :
Molecular Weight : 285.34
CAS No. : 57-27-2
Chemical Name : alchemists of Byzantine
Morphine (INN)is a highly potent
opiate analgesic psychoactive drug, is the principal active
ingredient in Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, or simply opium), is
considered to be the prototypical opioid. Like other opioids, e.g.
oxycodone (OxyContin, Percocet, Percodan), hydromorphone (Dilaudid,
Palladone), and diacetylmorphine (Heroin), morphine acts directly on the
central nervous system (CNS) to relieve pain. Morphine has a high
potential for addiction; tolerance and both physical and psychological
dependence develop rapidly.
Morphine hydrochloride, or Muriate of Morphia, C17H19NO3, HCl, 3H2O, may
be prepared by neutralising pure morphine, suspended in hot water, with
diluted hydrochloric acid, concentrating the solution, cooling, and
setting it aside to crystallise. It is also official in the U.S.P. It
occurs in white, acicular crystals, or as a white, odourless,
micro-crystalline powder, having a bitter taste. Its aqueous solution is
neutral to litmus. At 100° it loses its water of crystallisation, at
250° it becomes brown, then chars, but does not melt. On complete
ignition it usually leaves a visible, but not weighable, residue. On
adding ammonia to an aqueous solution of morphine, the base forms a
crystalline precipitate which, when collected, washed, and dried, should
respond to the tests given under Morphina. The precipitate formed in
this way should not yield more than traces to benzene (absence of other
alkaloids). It is an open question whether morphine hydrochloride
dissolves in sulphuric acid with or without colour, some authorities
maintaining that a pale rose colouration is produced. The method of
applying the test may account for the conflicting statements, as
experiments have shown that, though a faint pink colouration occurs at
first, the solution becomes colourless on shaking. An aqueous solution
(1 in 30) to which potassium carbonate has been added should not impart
any colour to chloroform (absence of apomorphine). Assayed
gravimetrically, the hydrochloride should yield 75.5 per cent. of
Soluble in water (1 in 24), boiling water (1 in 1), alcohol (1 in
50), glycerin (1 in 8); insoluble in ether or chloroform.
Action and Uses—Morphine hydrochloride has the general medicinal
properties of the salts of morphine (see Morphina). It is one of the
most permanent salts of the alkaloid, and where its solubility admits,
it is preferred to the salts of the organic acids. The official Liquor
Morphinae Hydrochloridi is the most convenient preparation for general
administration, 11 minims containing 1/10 grain of morphine
hydrochloride. For use as mildly sedative and expectorant lozenges,
Trochiscus Morphinae and Trochiscus Morphinae et Ipecacuanhae are
suitable. Pastilles of morphine, morphine and cocaine, and morphine and
bismuth are also prepared. Suppositoria Morphinae contain 1/4 grain of
morphine hydrochloride in each; they are also used two, three, or four
times this strength. Morphine hydrochloride is sometimes given in pills,
prepared by triturating the alkaloidal salt with sugar of milk, and
massing with syrup of glucose. Linctus Sedativus is a convenient
preparation to allay incessant cough and produce sleep. Insufflations of
morphine (1/4 grain), with 1 grain of bismuth oxychloride or 1 1/2
grains of starch are used for the throat and larynx: it is also a
constituent of Insufflatio Bismuthi et Morphinae (Ferrier's Snuff), for
use in nasal catarrh. Tablets of morphine hydrochloride are made in all
strengths for the preparation of solutions for hypodermic use; the B.P.
Injectio Morphinae Hypodermica is, however, prepared with morphine
tartrate. Morphine hydrochloride is incompatible with alkalies, alkali
earths, vegetable astringents, and salts of the heavy metals. In cases
of poisoning by morphine hydrochloride the antidotes are those of
Dose.—8 to 30 milligrams (1/8 to 1/2 grain).
Linctus Sedativus, B.P.C.—SEDATIVE LINCTUS. Syn.—Linctus Morphinae
Each fluid drachm contains about 1/32 grain of morphine hydrochloride,
with lemon juice, emulsion of chloroform, and glycerin. Dose.—2 to 4
mils (1/2 to 1 fluid drachm).
Liquor Morphinae Bimeconatis, B.P., 1885.—SOLUTION OF MORPHINE
Morphine hydrochloride, 9 grains; solution of ammonia, a sufficient
quantity; meconic acid, 6 grains; alcohol, 1/2 fluid ounce; distilled
water, a sufficient quantity. Dissolve the morphine hydrochloride in 2
or 3 fluid drachms of the distilled water, warming if necessary; then
add sufficient solution of ammonia to precipitate the morphine entirely.
Cool, filter, wash the precipitate with distilled water until free from
chloride; then drain and mix with sufficient water to produce 1 1/2
ounces. Finally, add the alcohol and meconic acid, and dissolve. This
preparation contains about 1 1/4 per cent. of morphine bimeconate, and
is about the same strength in this respect as tincture of opium. It is
sometimes used in place of the official solutions of morphine, over
which, however, it presents no advantages. Dose.—1/4 to 2 1/2 mils (5 to
Liquor Morphinae Hydrochloridi, B.P.—SOLUTION OF HYDROCHLORIDE. Syn.—Liquor
Morphinae; Solution of Hydrochlorate of Morphine.
Morphine hydrochloride, 1; diluted hydrochloric acid, 2; alcohol,
distilled water, sufficient to produce 100. Dissolve the morphine
hydrochloride in the alcohol, previously mixed with 25 of distilled
water and the acid, and add sufficient distilled water to make up to the
required volume. This solution provides a convenient means of
administering, morphine, and is commonly used when "Liquor Morphinae" is
ordered, unless there is some obvious objection to the presence of
hydrochloric acid. Dose.—1/2 to 4 mils (10 to 60 minims).
Suppositoria Morphinae, B.P.—MORPHINE SUPPOSITORIES.
Morphine hydrochloride, 1.7; oil of theobroma, sufficient to produce
100. Mix the morphine hydrochloride thoroughly with a small quantity of
the melted oil of theobroma, add the mixture to the remainder of the
oil, stir well together, and divide into suppositories each weighing
about 1 gramme (15 grains). Each suppository contains 1/4 grain of
morphine hydrochloride. Morphine suppositories are employed as a
sedative to allay pain. The action of the morphine is exerted only after
Trochisci Morphinae et Ipecacuanhae Compressi, B.P.C.—COMPRESSED
MORPHINE AND IPECACUANHA LOZENGES.
Each lozenge contains morphine hydrochloride, about 1/36 grain;
ipecacuanha root, in powder, 1/12 grain; with a sufficient quantity of
refined sugar, gum acacia, tincture of tolu, and theobroma emulsion.
They are used similarly to morphine and ipecacuanha lozenges.
Trochiscus Morphinae B.P.—MORPHINE LOZENGE.
Each lozenge contains morphine hydrochloride, 1/36 grain; with a
sufficient quantity of tolu basis. Morphine lozenges are used as a
sedative in cough. They act after absorption.
Trochiscus Morphinae et Ipecacuanhae, B.P.—MORPHINE AND IPECACUANHA
Each lozenge contains morphine hydrochloride, 1/36 grain; ipecacuanha
root, in powder, 1/12 grain; with a sufficient quantity of tolu basis.
Morphine and ipecacuanha lozenges axe used as a sedative and expectorant
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